歴史要約 中世 カロリングルネサンスと、スコラ学について



In the Middle Ages, which was considered a dark age, there were events that laid the groundwork for the Renaissance, such as the Carolingian Renaissance. Charlemagne, king of the Frankish Empire, expanded his territory and focused on the development of the church and the promotion of education to govern. This is called the Carolingian Renaissance, which included the revival of Latin, standardized curriculum, and the establishment of educational institutions.


Pepin II, Charlemagne's ancestor, became the mayor of the palace of the Merovingian dynasty and expanded his power. Charles Martel prevented Islamic forces, and Pepin III was crowned by the Pope. Charlemagne expanded his territory and sought to centralize power for governance.


Charlemagne made Christianity the axis of his rule, focusing on improving the quality of clergy and the development of the church. As there were few intellectuals among the Franks, he also worked on promoting education. These efforts are called the Carolingian Renaissance.


The three notable points of the Carolingian Renaissance are the revival of Latin, standardized educational curriculum, and the establishment of educational institutions. Latin was no longer commonly used, but with the development of Carolingian minuscule, it became easier to read, and classical works were transcribed.


Charlemagne gathered learned clergy to his court, and Alcuin created a standardized curriculum. He systematized the seven liberal arts and ordered the establishment of schools throughout the land. This led to later scholasticism, the era of great translations, and the 12th-century Renaissance.





Scholasticism is a style of learning that aimed to study monastic books and resolve contradictions through reason. Attempts were made to prove the existence of God with faith and reason as themes. Anselm presented an ontological proof, while Thomas Aquinas offered a cosmological proof. Eventually, Kant concluded that reason cannot prove the existence of God, and philosophy diverged from Christianity. Scholasticism served as the beginning of this by focusing on faith and reason.


Anselm of Canterbury, called the father of scholasticism, presented an ontological proof. He argued that God is the greatest being, and a real God is greater than an imaginary one, therefore God exists. However, the premise remains questionable.


Thomas Aquinas integrated Aristotelian philosophy with Christian theology and attempted a cosmological proof. He explained the existence of God as the fundamental cause, arguing that all events have causes.


Even after scholasticism, attempts to prove God's existence continued, but Kant concluded it could not be proven by reason, and philosophy diverged from Christianity. Scholasticism's focus on faith and reason served as the beginning of this process.