イスラム法 シャリーアとは? 【出典有】

イスラム法 シャリーアとは?


Sharia, the legal system of Islam, is a comprehensive legal framework that governs all aspects of Muslim life, with the Quran (holy book) and Sunnah (records of Muhammad's words and actions) as its explicit sources of law. The supplementary sources of Sharia are Ijma (consensus of scholars) and Qiyas (analogical reasoning).


Sharia classifies human actions into five categories: obligatory, recommended, permissible, disliked, and prohibited. There is a gray area between obligatory and prohibited actions, which is judged according to the situation. Sharia encompasses not only criminal law but also politics, economics, family relations, and all aspects of life.


Sharia means "God's perfect law" and is considered immutable. However, human interpretation through fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) can flexibly change according to the times and circumstances. There are four major schools of Islamic law (Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, and Hanbali), and although there are differences in interpretation, the basic principles are common.

シャリーアは領土主義が原則であり、[1] イスラム教徒に限らず一定の地域に居住するすべての人に適用される。ただし、一部の国ではイスラム教徒のみにシャリーアが適用される属人主義を採用している。

Sharia is based on the principle of territoriality [1] and applies to all people residing in a certain area, not just Muslims. However, some countries adopt the principle of personality, where Sharia applies only to Muslims.


Many Islamic countries have adopted a mixed legal system where Sharia coexist with secular law, and the scope of Sharia's application varies from country to country. Since the modern era, many countries have partially introduced secular legal systems from a human rights perspective.


There are many unclear aspects regarding the application of Sharia under the Taliban regime. Extremist organizations impose inhumane punishments based on extreme interpretations of Sharia, which differ from the interpretations of traditional Islamic jurists. Foreign countries are closely monitoring the situation with high tension.



[1] シャリーア